[8][9] Its 3,769,495 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019[2] make it the most-populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend. The driest month (with the lowest rainfall) is February (33.3mm). Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. [177] The FU, the HU, the TU, and the Charité make up the Berlin University Alliance, which has received funding from the Excellence Strategy program of the German government. Farther inland, the climate is continental, marked by greater diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature, with warmer summers and colder winters. Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Berlin and EKBO's elected chairperson is titled the bishop of EKBO. The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. The tables below show the climate zone number for a wide variety of International locations. Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist, one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin (Patriarchate of Moscow). [2] The government keeps a register of members of these churches for tax purposes, because it collects church tax on behalf of the churches. [63] The connecting link of U-Bahn line U5 from Alexanderplatz to Hauptbahnhof, along with the new stations Rotes Rathaus and Unter den Linden, opened on 4 December 2020, with the Museumsinsel U-Bahn station expected to open around March 2021, which would complete all new works on the U5. EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK). A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.[66]. The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Polish, English, Arabic, Italian, Bulgarian, Russian, Romanian, Kurdish, Serbo-Croatian, French, Spanish and Vietnamese. [100], There are more than 20 nonindigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities. [152], According to Monocle, Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world. [2][108] Between 1992 and 2011 the Muslim population almost doubled. [133], Berlin is one of the knowledge and innovation communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). However, all that extra moisture has an upside. The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until 1963, and for government use until 1972. Horlemann, Bernd (Hrsg. The Funkturm Berlin is a 150-meter-tall (490 ft) lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden. Museum Berggruen houses the collection of noted 20th century collector Heinz Berggruen, and features an extensive assortment of works by Picasso, Matisse, Cézanne, and Giacometti, among others. Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. Historically, 67 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities. Focal points are photonic components and systems, fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens (built in 1895). In Berlin, the capital of Germany, the climate is moderately continental, characterized by cold winters, with average temperatures around freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and moderately warm summers, with daytime temperatures hovering around 24 °C (75 °F). The Berliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. [20][21] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks. [228][229], Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes. speech, is in Tempelhof-Schöneberg. German international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its TV production unit in Berlin, and most national German broadcasters have a studio in the city including ZDF and RTL. In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.9 million to 4 million. Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper, the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. Berlin has a moderate continental type of climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) with warm, wet summers and cold, relatively dry winters. The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges (Hochschulen), offering a wide range of disciplines. There is significant rainfall throughout the year in Berlin. West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. [3] The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has about six million inhabitants[10] and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin is home to many magazine, newspaper, book and scientific/academic publishers, as well as their associated service industries. The Charité Medical School has around 8,000 students. The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the 1880s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene, started in 1896. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city. [180] The John F. Kennedy School, a bilingual German–American public school in Zehlendorf, is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community. As of 2014[update], Berlin had 878 schools, teaching 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere. The Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin are the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. In 2015 Berlin became the venue for the UEFA Champions League Final. Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter, Springer, the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe (publishing group), Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin. Since 2015, the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at 122 meters (400 ft) elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. [24] Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. [230][231] German bakeries offering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. In 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. [25], Berlin contains three World Heritage Sites: Museum Island; the Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin; and the Berlin Modernism Housing Estates. Some of the most visited places in Berlin include: Potsdamer Platz, Brandenburger Tor, the Berlin wall, Alexanderplatz, Museumsinsel, Fernsehturm, the East-Side Gallery, Schloss-Charlottenburg, Zoologischer Garten, Siegessäule, Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer, Mauerpark, Botanical Garden, Französischer Dom, Deutscher Dom and Holocaust-Mahnmal. Charlottenburg Palace, which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin. The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742 and is the oldest of the three. [206] It has become a significant part of the city's cultural heritage and has its roots in the graffiti scene of Kreuzberg of the 1980s. [218][219] Every year Berlin hosts one of the largest New Year's Eve celebrations in the world, attended by well over a million people. [248] A Fan Fest at Brandenburg Gate, which attracts several hundred-thousand spectators, has become popular during international soccer competitions, like the UEFA European Championship. In Germany, some like it hot — this summer's unusually hot, sunny weather, that is. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. [192] The KIC is based at the Center for Entrepreneurship at TU Berlin and has a focus in the development of IT industries. Germany > Berlin. The House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus) functions as the city and state parliament, which has 141 seats. In 2015, the total labor force in Berlin was 1.85 million. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz. Temperatures can be 4 Â°C (7 Â°F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas. [22] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics. The city's appearance today has been predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history during the 20th century. In the mid-1950s it was closed to vehicles, and after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, pedestrian traffic was heavily restricted. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. Sandy Mecklenburg in the northeast has many glacier-formed lakes dating to the last glacial period. 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